The Swing Voter's Curse, American Economic Review
We analyze two-candidate elections in which some voters are uncertain about the realization of a state variable that affects the utility of all voters. We demonstrate the existence of a swing voter's curse: less informed indifferent voters strictly prefer to abstain rather than vote for either candidate even when voting is costless. The swing voter's curse leads to the equilibrium result that a substantial fraction of the electorate will abstain even though all abstainers strictly prefer voting for one candidate over voting for another.
Timothy Feddersen, Wolfgang Pesendorfer
Feddersen, Timothy, and Wolfgang Pesendorfer. 1996. The Swing Voter's Curse. American Economic Review. 86(3): 408-424.