The Impact of Negotiation on Intergroup Relations, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Three studies examined the impact of interpersonal conflict on intergroup relations. It was hypothesized that whereas all subjects were expected to show in-group bias merely as a consequence of social categorization, in-group favoritism would be greatly reduced among those who negotiated with an out-group member, but not for those who negotiated with an in-group member. The results supported the predictions: People who negotiated with a member of an out-group developed more favorable evaluations of the out-group whereas people who negotiated with a member of their own group were more likely to show in-group favoritism (Experiments 1 and 2). However, when the negotiation situation was such that negotiators could not reach a mutually beneficial agreement, the positive effects of interpersonal negotiation with members of out-groups on intergroup relations was not observed (Experiment 3). Thus, negotiation with members of out-groups improves intergroup relations when the negotiation situation is one in which both persons' goals may be achieved. Whereas individuals who expected to negotiate with out-group members thought they would obtain significantly lower outcomes, there were no differences in terms of the value of the actual outcomes achieved for those who negotiated with an in-group member and those who negotiated with an out-group member.
Thompson, Leigh. 1993. The Impact of Negotiation on Intergroup Relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 29(4): 304-325.