Learning and Transfer: A General Role for Analogical Encoding, Journal of Educational Psychology
Teaching by examples and cases is widely used to promote learning, but it varies widely in its effectiveness. The authors test an adaptation to case-based learning that facilitates abstracting problem-solving schemas from examples and using them to solve further problems: analogical encoding, or learning by drawing a comparison across examples. In 3 studies, the authors examined schema abstraction and transfer among novices learning negotiation strategies. Experiment 1 showed a benefit for analogical learning relative to no case study. Experiment 2 showed a marked advantage for comparing two cases over studying the 2 cases separately. Experiment 3 showed that increasing the degree of comparison support increased the rate of transfer in a face-to-face dynamic negotiation exercise.
Dedre Gentner, Jeffrey Loewenstein, Leigh Thompson
Gentner, Dedre, Jeffrey Loewenstein, and Leigh Thompson. 2003. Learning and Transfer: A General Role for Analogical Encoding. Journal of Educational Psychology. 95(2): 393-408.