Retail Contracting and Organizational Form: Alternatives to Chain Affiliation in the Motel Industry, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy
Most of the existing empirical literature on franchising investigates the share of company-owned versus franchised establishments within large retail firms. This literature has not typically considered the decision of a business owner to operate an independent business or become a franchisee. This paper empirically analyses what determines whether independent ownership or affiliation is observed, using data on the affiliation status of 2,293 motel establishments located throughout the United States. Heterogeneity in the underlying economic environment helps explain affiliation choices at the establishment level. The results also suggest that failure to consider independent establishments may explain the puzzling negative correlation between risk and vertical integration commonly found in the empirical franchising literature.
Mazzeo, Michael. 2004. Retail Contracting and Organizational Form: Alternatives to Chain Affiliation in the Motel Industry. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy. 13(4): 599-615.