Intraday Trading Invariance in the E-Mini S&P 500 Futures Market
Intraday trading patterns in the E-mini S&P 500 futures contract between January 2008 and November 2011 are consistent with the following invariance relationship: The return variation per transaction is log-linearly related to trade size, with a slope coefficient equal to -2. This association applies both across the pronounced intraday diurnal pattern and across days in the time series. The documented factor of proportionality deviates sharply from prior hypotheses relating volatility to transactions count or trading volume. Intraday trading invariance is motivated a priori by the intuition that market microstructure invariance, introduced by Kyle and Obizhaeva (2013) to explain bets at low frequencies, also applies to individual transactions at intraday frequencies.
Torben Andersen, Oleg Bondarenko, Anna Obizhaeva, Pete Kyle
Andersen, Torben, Oleg Bondarenko, Anna Obizhaeva, and Pete Kyle. 2016. Intraday Trading Invariance in the E-Mini S&P 500 Futures Market.