Team negotiation: An examination of integrative and distributive bargaining, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Two experiments compared the effectiveness of team and solo negotiators in integrative and distributive bargaining. When at least 1 party to a negotiation was a team, joint profit increased. Teams, more than solos, developed mutually beneficial trade-offs among issues and discovered compatible interests. The presence of at least 1 team increased information exchange and accuracy in judgments about the other party's interests in comparison with solo negotiations. The belief by both teams and solos that teams have a relative advantage over solo opponents was not supported by actual outcomes. Unexpectedly, neither private meetings nor friendships among team members improved the team's advantage. Teams of friends made less accurate judgments and reached fewer integrative agreements compared to teams of nonfriends.
Leigh Thompson, Erika Peterson, Susan E Brodt
Thompson, Leigh, Erika Peterson, and Susan E Brodt. 1996. Team negotiation: An examination of integrative and distributive bargaining. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 70(1): 66-78.