Advertising's Effect on men's gender role attitudes, Sex Roles
We posited that media images of men influence the gender role attitudes that men express soon after exposure to the images. A total of 212 men (87% European American, 7% Asian or Asian American, 3% African American, and 3% other) viewed magazine advertisements containing images of men that varied in terms of how traditionally masculine vs. androgynous they were and whether the models were the same age or much older than the viewers. Men who had initially been less traditional espoused more traditional attitudes than any other group after exposure to traditionally masculine models, although they continued to endorse relatively nontraditional views after exposure to androgynous models. These findings suggest that nontraditional men''s gender role attitudes may be rather unstable and susceptible to momentary influences such as those found in advertising.
Bodenhausen, Galen. 1997. Advertising's Effect on men's gender role attitudes. Sex Roles. 36(9-10): 551-572.