Framing Discrimination: Effects of Inclusion Versus Exclusion Mindsets on Stereotypic Judgments, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Three studies investigated how inclusion versus exclusion strategies differentially lead to stereotypic decisions. In inclusion strategies, suitable targets are selected from a list of candidates, whereas in exclusion strategies, unsuitable candidates are eliminated. Across 2 separate target domains (Study 1: male and female politicians; Studies 2 and 3: African American and European American basketball players), exclusion strategies, as compared with inclusion strategies, elicited higher levels of both sensitivity stereotyping (i.e., greater difficulty distinguishing among members of stereotyped groups) and criterion stereotyping (i.e., setting different decision thresholds for judging members of different groups; see M. R. Banaji & A. G. Greenwald, 1995). Thus, the strategy used during decision making can influence the final decision via 2 theoretically distinct stereotyping mechanisms.
Kurt Hugenberg, Galen Bodenhausen, Melissa McLain
Hugenberg, Kurt, Galen Bodenhausen, and Melissa McLain. 2006. Framing Discrimination: Effects of Inclusion Versus Exclusion Mindsets on Stereotypic Judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 91(6): 1020-1031.