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The Three Faces of Eve: An Examination of the Strategic Display of Positive, Negative and Neutral Emotions in Negotiations, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes


In a series of laboratory experiments, we tested the inXuence of strategically displaying positive, negative, and neutral emotions on negotiation outcomes. In Experiment 1, a face-to-face dispute simulation, negotiators who displayed positive emotion, in contrast to negative or neutral emotions, were more likely to incorporate a future business relationship in the negotiated contract. In Experiment 2, an ultimatum setting, managers strategically displaying positive emotion were more likely to close a deal. This eVect was mediated by negotiators' willingness to pay more to a negotiator strategically displaying positive versus negative emotions. In Experiment 3, display of positive emotion was a more eVective strategy for gaining concessions from the other party in a distributive setting. Negotiators made more extreme demands when facing a negotiator strategically displaying negative, rather than positive or neutral, emotions. Implications for strategic display of emotion in negotiations are discussed.




Shirli Kopelman, Ashleigh S. Rosette, Leigh Thompson

Date Published



Kopelman, Shirli, Ashleigh S. Rosette, and Leigh Thompson. 2006. The Three Faces of Eve: An Examination of the Strategic Display of Positive, Negative and Neutral Emotions in Negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.(1): 81-101.


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