Capital Structure Choice: Macroeconomic Conditions and Financial Constraints, Journal of Financial Economics
This paper provides new evidence of how macroeconomic conditions affect capital structure choice. We model firms' target capital structures as a function of macroeconomic conditions and firm-specific variables. We split our sample based on a measure of financial constraints. We find that target leverage is counter-cyclical for the relatively unconstrained sample, but pro-cyclical for the relatively constrained sample. The choice of what type of security to issue/repurchase is significantly related to deviations from the target capital structure, particularly for the constrained sample. Macroeconomic conditions are significant for issue choice for unconstrained firms but less so for constrained firms. Our results support the hypothesis that unconstrained firms are able to time their issue choice to periods when macroeconomic conditions are favorable, while constrained firms take what they can get.
Robert Korajczyk, Amnon Levy
Korajczyk, Robert, and Amnon Levy. 2003. Capital Structure Choice: Macroeconomic Conditions and Financial Constraints. Journal of Financial Economics. 68(1): 75-109.