Battle of the Sexes: Gender Stereotype Confirmation and Reactance in Negotiations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
We examine how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance. Men outperformed women when the negotiation was perceived as diagnostic of ability (Experiment 1) or the negotiation was linked to gender-specific traits (Experiment 2), suggesting the threat of negative stereotype confirmation hurt wome? s performance relative to men. We hypothesized that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly, but when stereotypes are explicitly activated, people exhibit stereotype reactance, or the tendency to behave in a manner inconsistent with a stereotype. Experiment 3 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 4 examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).
Laura J. Kray, Leigh Thompson, Adam Galinsky
Kray, J. Laura, Leigh Thompson, and Adam Galinsky. 2001. Battle of the Sexes: Gender Stereotype Confirmation and Reactance in Negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 80(6): 942-958.