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The Pleasures and Pains of Distinct Self-Construals: The Role of Interdependence in Regulatory Focus, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology


Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between self-regulatory processes that focus upon promotion and prevention strategies for goal pursuit. Five studies provide support for the hypothesis that these strategies differ for individuals with distinct self-construals. Specifically, individuals with a dominant independent self-construal were predicted to place more emphasis on promotion focused information, and those with a dominant interdependent self-construal on prevention focused information. Support for this hypothesis was obtained for participants who scored high versus low on the Independence-Interdependence scale, participants who were presented with an independent versus interdependent situation, and participants from a western versus eastern culture. The influence of interdependence on regulatory focus was observed in both importance ratings of information and affective responses consistent with promotion or prevention focus.




Angela Y. Lee, Jennifer L Aaker, Wendi Gardner

Date Published



Lee, Angela Y., Jennifer L Aaker, and Wendi Gardner. 2000. The Pleasures and Pains of Distinct Self-Construals: The Role of Interdependence in Regulatory Focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78(6): 1122-1134.


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