Symbols for Sale, Harvard Business Review
This article presents a discussion around the concept that sellers of goods are engaged in selling symbols as well as practical merchandise. The article discusses the need for marketing managers at business enterprises to consider the symbolic significance of their products, the diversity of spending, the personal and social meanings behind the things that people buy, and the recognition of modern goods as essentially psychological things which are symbolic of personal attributes and psychological goals.
Levy, Sidney. 1959. Symbols for Sale. Harvard Business Review. 37(4): 117-124.