Anne T. Coughlan

J.L. & Helen Kellogg Professor of Marketing

Kellogg School of Management

Northwestern University

2001 Sheridan Road

Evanston, IL 60208-2008

E-mail to Anne T. Coughlan

(847)491-2719, (847)491-3522


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1.      FAQs on MLM Companies,” July 2012.  This report poses, and answers, classic questions on how MLM (multi-level marketing) companies work, what products they sell, what their distribution channel strategy is, and how they compensate independent distributors.  It was prepared with the financial and data support of Herbalife Ltd.


2.      Assessing an MLM Business:  Herbalife as a Legitimate MLM,” July 2012.  This report examines the business model of a publicly-traded multi-level marketing company and shows its distribution channel strategy and distributor compensation system are those of a legitimate MLM and not an illegal pyramid scheme.  It was prepared with the financial and data support of Herbalife Ltd.


3.      1993 Multi-Level Marketing Executives Industry Survey Summary Report,” with Kent Grayson, published in Down-Line News, Vol. III, Issue V, October/November.  This is an industry publication for companies that use multi-level marketing, or network marketing, to sell their products.


4.      "Salesforce Compensation:  Insights from Management Science," with Subrata K. Sen, May 1986, Marketing Science Institute Working Paper Series.


5.      "Vertical Integration Incentives in Marketing:  Theory and Application to International Trade in the Semiconductor Industry," Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, April 1982.


The following papers, along with "Measuring the International Marketing Productivity of U.S. Semiconductor Companies," are part of a final report to the National Science Foundation on Grant No. PRA 78‑21837, 1982:


6.      "Business History of Digital Logic Circuits," Studies in Industry Economics No. 121, Department of Economics, Stanford University, 1980; revised, April 1981.


7.      "Preliminary Case Study of the Mask Aligner," November 1979.


8.      "Preliminary Case Study on the Plastic Encapsulation of Integrated Circuits," with M. T. Flaherty, revised January 1980.


9.      "Business History of Ion Implantation," revised June 1982.


10.  "Business History of the Operational Amplifier," revised February 1982.


11.  "Business History of the 4K RAM," revised April 1981.