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A Diametric Forces Model for Strategic Change: Assessing the Antecedents and Consequences of Restructuing the Higher Education Industry
Matthew S. Kraatz and Edward J. Zajac, Strategic Management Journal,1993, Vol, 14

This study examines the environmental and organizational forces, counter forces, andperformance consequences of strategic restructuring in the higher education industry. The study proposes a diametric forces model to address the conflicting pressures for strategic change faced by these organizations, and uses extensive longitudinal data spanning the last two decades to examine the ways in which restructuring has been used as a successful adaptive response. The results suggest that, contrary to ecological predictions, restructuring is a predictable, common, and performance-enhancing response to changing environmental
conditions. The study concludes by discussing the applicability of its findings for research on corporate restructuring and strategic change.

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