Disclaimer: The articles provided on this website as pdfs were published by journals and thus copyrighted to them. These links are intended to facilitate the accepted practice that authors are allowed to distribute copies of their articles to interested parties for personal use. No commercial use may be made of the articles nor is mass production of the articles permitted.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (in press). How can financial incentives improve the success of disadvantaged college students? Insights from the social sciences. In B. Castleman, S. Schwartz & S. Baum (Eds.), Decision-making for college success: Behavioral insights to improve access and persistence. Routledge.
- Stephens, N. M., Brannon, T. N., Markus, H. R., & Nelson, J. E. (2015). Feeling at home in college: Fortifying school-relevant selves to reduce social class disparities in higher education. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9, 1-24.
- Stephens, N. M., Cameron, J. S., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2014). Lower social class does not (always) mean greater interdependence: Women in poverty have fewer social resources than working-class women. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 1060-1072.
- Stephens, N.M., Hamedani, M. H., & Destin, M. (2014). Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition. Psychological Science, 25, 943-953.
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, T. (2014). Social class culture cycles: How three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 611-634.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2013). Rank is not enough: Why we need a sociocultural perspective to understand social class. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 126-130.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2013). How can incentives improve the success of disadvantaged college students? Insights from the Social Sciences. Policy brief for a project sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation at the George Washington University.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., & Hamedani, M. G. (2013). Who explains Hurricane Katrina and the Chilean earthquake as an act of God? The experience of extreme hardship predicts religious meaning-making. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 44, 607-619.
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Fryberg, S. A. (2012). Social class disparities in health and education: Reducing inequality by applying a sociocultural self model of behavior. Psychological Review, 119, 723-744.
*Winner of Otto Klineberg Intercultural and International Relations Award
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, T. (2012). A cultural mismatch: Independent cultural norms produce greater increases in cortisol and more negative emotions among first-generation college students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1389-1393.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C., & Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen disadvantage: How American universities’ focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1178-1197.
*Winner of Stanley Reiter Best Paper Award: judged to be the best paper among those published by the Kellogg faculty in the preceding four years
- Kraus, M., & Stephens, N. M. (2012). A road map for an emerging psychology of social class. Social Psychology and Personality Compass, 6, 642-656.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., & Markus, H. R. (2012). It's your choice: How the middle-class model of independence disadvantages working-class Americans. In S. T. Fiske & H. R. Markus (Eds.), Facing social class: How societal rank influences interaction (pp. 87-106), New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Stephens, N. M., & Levine, C. S. (2011). Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality. Psychological Science, 22, 1231-1236.
- Savani, K., Stephens, N. M., & Markus, H. R. (2011). The unanticipated interpersonal and societal consequences of choice: Victim-blaming and reduced support for the public good. Psychological Science, 22, 795-802.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., & Markus, H. R. (2011). When choice does not equal freedom: A sociocultural analysis of agency in working-class contexts. Social and Personality Psychology Science, 2, 33-41.
- Fryberg, S. A., Stephens, N. M., Covarrubias, R., Markus, H. R., Carter, E. D., Laiduc, G. A., and Salido, A. J. (2011). How the media frames the immigration debate: The critical role of location and politics. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 0, 1-17.
- Sheperd, H., & Stephens, N. M. (2010). Using culture to explain behavior: An integrated cultural approach. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 353-354.
- Fryberg, S. A., & Stephens, N. M. (2010). When the world is colorblind, American Indians are invisible. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 115-119.
- Stephens, N. M., Hamedani, M. G., Markus, H. R., Bergsieker, H. B., & Eloul, L. (2009). Why did they "choose" to stay? Perspectives of the Hurricane Katrina observers and survivors. Psychological Science, 20, 878-886.
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2007). Choice as an act of meaning: The case of social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 814-830.
Papers Under Review:
- Apfelbaum, E. P., Stephens, N. M., & Reagans, R. (under review). Valuing differences or equality? Tailoring diversity approaches to social groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Savani, K., Stephens, N. M., & Markus, H. R. (under review). A cognitive consequence of choice: Selecting among alternatives promotes analytic thought and decreased attention to the context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., Hamedani, M. G., Destin, M., & Manzo, V. (under review). A difference-education intervention equips first-generation college students to thrive in the face of stressful college situations. Psychological Science.
Papers in Preparation:
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., & Nelson, J. E. Creating a cultural match: An intervention that includes interdependence in the college culture improves first-generation students' academic performance.
- Stephens, N. M., & Hamedani, M. G. Difference-education: A new social psychological approach to improving educational outcomes for disadvantaged students.
- Levine, C. S., & Stephens, N. M. Giving voice to underrepresented groups can reduce social identity threat and increase levels of social fit and trust.
- McDonnell, M. H., & Stephens, N. M. Gender and punishment for ethical violations in the professions.
- Fryberg, S. A., Stephens, N. M., & Leavitt, P. Teacher mindsets and diversity beliefs: Implications for closing the achievement gap.
- Cheryan, S., Siy, J. O., Jones, V., & Stephens, N. M. Ethnic deviance and group status: Who is reprimanded for acting like the outgroup?
- Destin, M., & Stephens, N. M. Looking beyond the individual can enhance academic motivation.