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- Stephens, N. M., Brannon, T. N., Markus, H. R., & Nelson, J. E. (in press). Feeling at home in college: Fortifying school-relevant selves to reduce social class disparities in higher education. Social Issues and Policy Review.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (in press). How can financial incentives improve the success of disadvantaged college students? Insights from the social sciences. In B. Castleman, S. Schwartz & S. Baum (Eds.), Decision-making for college success: Behavioral insights to improve access and persistence. Routledge.
- Stephens, N. M., Cameron, J. S., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2014). Lower social class does not (always) mean greater interdependence: Women in poverty have fewer social resources than working-class women. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 1060-1072.
- Stephens, N.M., Hamedani, M. H., & Destin, M. (2014). Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition. Psychological Science, 25, 943-953.
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, T. (2014). Social class culture cycles: How three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 611-634.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2013). Rank is not enough: Why we need a sociocultural perspective to understand social class. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 126-130.
- Stephens, N. M., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2013). How can incentives improve the success of disadvantaged college students? Insights from the Social Sciences. Policy brief for a project sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation at the George Washington University.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., & Hamedani, M. G. (2013). Who explains Hurricane Katrina and the Chilean earthquake as an act of God? The experience of extreme hardship predicts religious meaning-making. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 44, 607-619.
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Fryberg, S. A. (2012). Social class disparities in health and education: Reducing inequality by applying a sociocultural self model of behavior. Psychological Review, 119, 723-744.
*Winner of Otto Klineberg Intercultural and International Relations Award
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, T. (2012). A cultural mismatch: Independent cultural norms produce greater increases in cortisol and more negative emotions among first-generation college students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1389-1393.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C., & Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen disadvantage: How American universities’ focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1178-1197.
*Winner of Stanley Reiter Best Paper Award: judged to be the best paper among those published by the Kellogg faculty in the preceding four years
- Kraus, M., & Stephens, N. M. (2012). A road map for an emerging psychology of social class. Social Psychology and Personality Compass, 6, 642-656.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., & Markus, H. R. (2012). It's your choice: How the middle-class model of independence disadvantages working-class Americans. In S. T. Fiske & H. R. Markus (Eds.), Facing social class: How societal rank influences interaction (pp. 87-106), New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Stephens, N. M., & Levine, C. S. (2011). Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality. Psychological Science, 22, 1231-1236.
- Savani, K., Stephens, N. M., & Markus, H. R. (2011). The unanticipated interpersonal and societal consequences of choice: Victim-blaming and reduced support for the public good. Psychological Science, 22, 795-802.
- Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., & Markus, H. R. (2011). When choice does not equal freedom: A sociocultural analysis of agency in working-class contexts. Social and Personality Psychology Science, 2, 33-41.
- Fryberg, S. A., Stephens, N. M., Covarrubias, R., Markus, H. R., Carter, E. D., Laiduc, G. A., and Salido, A. J. (2011). How the media frames the immigration debate: The critical role of location and politics. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 0, 1-17.
- Sheperd, H., & Stephens, N. M. (2010). Using culture to explain behavior: An integrated cultural approach. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 353-354.
- Fryberg, S. A., & Stephens, N. M. (2010). When the world is colorblind, American Indians are invisible. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 115-119.
- Stephens, N. M., Hamedani, M. G., Markus, H. R., Bergsieker, H. B., & Eloul, L. (2009). Why did they "choose" to stay? Perspectives of the Hurricane Katrina observers and survivors. Psychological Science, 20, 878-886.
- Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2007). Choice as an act of meaning: The case of social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 814-830.
Papers Under Review:
- Apfelbaum, E. P., Stephens, N. M., & Reagans, R. (under review). Valuing differences or equality? Tailoring diversity approaches to social groups. Administrative Science Quarterly.
- Savani, K., Stephens, N. M., & Markus, H. R. (under review). A cognitive consequence of choice: Selecting among alternatives promotes analytic thought and decreased attention to the context. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., Hamedani, M. G., Destin, M., & Manzo, V. (under review). A difference-education intervention equips first-generation college students to thrive in the face of stressful college situations.
Papers in Preparation:
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S. M., & Nelson, J. E. Creating a cultural match: An intervention that includes interdependence in the college culture improves first-generation students' academic performance.
- Stephens, N. M., & Hamedani, M. G. Difference-education: A new social psychological approach to improving educational outcomes for disadvantaged students.
- Levine, C. S., & Stephens, N. M. Giving voice to underrepresented groups can reduce social identity threat and increase levels of social fit and trust.
- McDonnell, M. H., & Stephens, N. M. Gender and punishment for ethical violations in the professions.
- Fryberg, S. A., Stephens, N. M., & Leavitt, P. Teacher mindsets and diversity beliefs: Implications for closing the achievement gap.
- Cheryan, S., Siy, J. O., Jones, V., & Stephens, N. M. Ethnic deviance and group status: Who is reprimanded for acting like the outgroup?
- Destin, M., & Stephens, N. M. Looking beyond the individual can enhance academic motivation.