Angela Lee
Angela Y. Lee

Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professor of Marketing

Print Overview

Angela Y. Lee joined the marketing faculty at the Kellogg School in 1995 and was named Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professor of Marketing in 2007.

Angela is a consumer psychologist. Her expertise is in consumer learning, emotions and goals. Her research focuses on consumer motivation and affect, cross-cultural consumer psychology, and nonconscious influences of memory on judgment and choice. Her publications appear in both marketing and psychology journals and she is the co-editor of Kellogg on China (Northwestern University Press, 2004). She was the recipient of the 2006 Stanley Reiter Best Paper Award for her research on self-regulation and persuasion, and the 2002 Otto Klineberg Award for the best paper on international and intercultural relations. She currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Consumer Research and the Journal of Marketing Research. And she chairs the policy board of the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research. Angela is a past president of the Association for Consumer Research and serves on the board of the American Marketing Associaiton.

At the Kellogg School, Angela teaches Marketing Research in the MBA, MSMS and EMBA programs. She has served as the faculty advisor of the Global Initiatives in Management class for China, Japan and South Africa. She also teaches a doctoral seminar in Consumer Behavior.

Angela is a native of Hong Kong where she worked as a fund raising consultant for nonprofit organizations before entering academia. She received her BBA in Marketing and Travel Industry Management from the University of Hawaii, an MPhil in Economics from the University of Hong Kong, and a PhD in Management from the University of Toronto.

Areas of Expertise
Consumer Behavior
Consumer Decision-Making
International Marketing
Marketing Management
Marketing Research
Nonprofit Marketing

Print Vita
Ph.D., 1995, Marketing, University of Toronto
M.Phil., 1990, Economics, University of Hong Kong
B.B.A., 1981, Marketing & Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii

Academic Positions
Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, 2007-present
Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Managament, Northwestern University, 2006-present
Visiting Professor, Marketing,  , Hongkong University of Science and Technology, 2008-2008
PepsiCo Professor of International Marketing , 2006-2007
Associate Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, 2001-2006
Visiting Associate Professor of Marketing, Cornell University, 2000-2001
Assistant Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, 1995-2001

Honors and Awards
APS Fellow, American Psychological Society
University of Hawaii Hall of Honor, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professorship, 2007
Invited Speaker, Society of Personality & Social Psychology Attitude Pre-Conference , 2006
PepsiCo Research Chair in International Marketing, 2006
Stanley Reiter Best Paper Award, Kellogg School of Management, 2006
Consortium Faculty, AMA Sheth Foundation Doctoral Consortium , 2003, 2004, 2005
Invited Speaker, Midwestern Psychological Association Meeting , 2001, 2005
MSI Young Scholar, Marketing Science Institute, 2001
Winner of the Otto Klineberg Award , 2000
Kraft Research Chair, 1997
McManus Research Chair, 1996, 1998
AMA Doctoral Consortium Fellow, 1994

Editorial Positions
Co-Editor, Special Issue, Journal of Association for Consumer Research, 2016-2017
Chair, Policy Board, Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2014
Editorial Board Member, Journal of Consumer Research, 2007
Editorial Board Member, Journal of Marketing Research, 2003
Editorial Board Member, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2002-2013
Ad-hoc Reviewer, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ad-hoc Reviewer, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Ad-hoc Reviewer, Marketing Science Institute
Ad-hoc Reviewer, American Marketing Association

Print Research
Research Interests

Conscious and nonconscious influences of memory on judgment and choice

Goal, motivation and self regulation

Cross-cultural psychology

Affect, emotion and metacognition

Self identity

Lee, Angela Y. and Qimei Chen. 2015. Culture and Medical Decision Making: Healthcare Consumer Perspectives in Japan and the U.S. Health Psychology. 34(12): 1133-1144.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2015. Acts of Emptying Promote Self-focus: A Perceived Resource Deficiency Perspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 25(2): 257-267.
Lisjak, Monika and Angela Y. Lee. 2014. The Bright Side of Depletion: Self Protective Impulse Takes Over when Danger Looms. Journal of Consumer Research. 41(1): 55-70.
Spassova, Gerri and Angela Y. Lee. 2014. Looking into the Future: A Fit between Self-Construal and Temporal Distance. Journal of Consumer Research. 40(1): 159-171.
Zhang, Hongxia, Ying Ding, Angela Y. Lee and Jing Xu. 2013. Interdependence vs Independent? The Age and Region Differences of Chinese Consumers' Self-Construal and their Impacts on Advertising Appeals. Journal of Marketing Science. 9(1): 50-61.
Sun, Jin, TakKeh Hean and Angela Y. Lee. 2012. The Effect of of Attribute Alignability on Service Evaluation: The Moderating Role of Uncertainty. Journal of Consumer Research. 38(4): 831-847.
Nam, Myungwoo, Jing Wang and Angela Y. Lee. 2012. The Difference Between Differences: How Expertise Affects Diagnosticity of Attribute Alignability. Journal of Consumer Research. 38(4): 736-750.
Lisjak, Monika, Angela Y. Lee and Wendi Gardner. 2012. When a Threat to the Brand Is a Threat to the Self: The Importance of Brand Identification and Implicit Self-Esteem in Predicting Defensiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 38: 1120-1132.
Lisjak, Monika, Daniel Molden and Angela Y. Lee. 2012. Primed Interference: The Cognitive and Behavioral Costs of an Incongruity between Chronic and Primed Motivational Orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Reimann, Martin, Feye Wilko, Alan J. Malter, Josh Ackerman, Raquel Castano, Nitika Garg, Robert Kreuzbauer, Aparna LabrooAngela Y. Lee, Maureen Morrin, Gergana Y. Nenkov, Jesper H. Nielsen, Maria Perez, Gratiana Pol, JoseAntonio Rosa, Carolyn Yoon and Chen-Bo Zhong. 2012. Embodiment in Judgement and Choice. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics. 5(2)
Lee, Sujin, Angela Y. Lee and Mary Kern. 2011. Viewing Time Through the Lens of the Self: The Fit Effect of Self-Construal and Temporal Distance on Task Perception. European Journal of Social Psychology. 41: 191-200.
Hong, Jiewen and Angela Y. Lee. 2010. Feeling Mixed but Not Torn: The Moderating Role of Construal Level in Mixed Emotions Appeals. Journal of Consumer Research. 37(3): 456-472.
Lee, Angela Y., Punam A. Keller and Brian Sternthal. 2010. Value From Regulatory Construal Fit: The Persuasive Impact of Fit Between Consumer Goals and Message Concreteness. Journal of Consumer Research. 36(5): 735-747.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2009. Engaging the Consumer: The Opposing Forces of Regulatory Nonfit versus Fit. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 19: 134-136.
Kim, Hakkyun, Akshay Rao and Angela Y. Lee. 2009. It's Time to Vote: Fit Between Construal Level and Temporal Distance on Political Persuation. Journal of Consumer Research. 35(6): 877-889.
Hong, Jiewen and Angela Y. Lee. 2008. Be Fit and Be Strong: Mastering Self-Regulation with Regulatory Fit. Journal of Consumer Research. 34(5): 682-695.
Labroo, Aparna and Angela Y. Lee. 2006. Between Two Brands: A Goal Fluency Account of Brand Evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research. 43(3): 374-385.
Aaker, Jennifer L and Angela Y. Lee. 2006. Understanding Regulatory Fit. Journal of Marketing Research. 43(1): 15-19.
Wang, Jing and Angela Y. Lee. 2006. The Role of Regulatory Focus in Preference Construction. Journal of Marketing Research. 43(1): 28-38.
Osselaer, StijinM.J.Van, Suresh Ramanathan, Margaret C Campbell, Joel B Cohen, Jeannette K Dale, Paul M. Herr, Chris Janiszewski, A. Kruglanski, Angela Y. Lee, Stephen J. Read, J.Edward Russo and Nader T. Tavassoli. 2005. Choice Based on Goals. Marketing Letters. 16(4): 335-346.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2004. The Prevalence of Meta-Cognitive Routes to Judgment. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 14(4): 345-355.
Lee, Angela Y. and Aparna Labroo. 2004. Effects of Conceptual and Perceptual Fluency on Brand Evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research. 41(2): 151-165.
Lee, Angela Y. and Jennifer L Aaker. 2004. Bringing the Frame into Focus: The Influence of Regulatory Fit on Processing Fluency and Persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86(2): 205-218.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2002. Effects of Implicit Memory on Memory-Based versus Stimulus-Based Brand Choice. Journal of Marketing Research. 39(4): 440-454.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2001. The Mere Exposure Effect: An Uncertainty Reduction Explanation Revisited. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 27(10): 1255-1266.
Aaker, Jennifer L and Angela Y. Lee. 2001. I Seek Pleasures and We Avoid Pains: The Role of Self Regulatory Goals in Information Processing and Persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research. 28(1): 33-49.
Lee, Angela Y., Jennifer L Aaker and Wendi Gardner. 2000. The Pleasures and Pains of Distinct Self-Construals: The Role of Interdependence in Regulatory Focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78(6): 1122-1134.
Gardner, Wendi, Shira Gabriel and Angela Y. Lee. 1999. 'I' Value Freedom, but 'We' Value Relationships: Self-construal Priming Mirrors Cultural Differences in Judgment. Psychological Science. 10(4): 321-326.
Lee, Angela Y. and Brian Sternthal. 1999. Effects of Positive Mood on Memory. Journal of Consumer Research. 26(September): 115-127.
Monroe, Kent and Angela Y. Lee. 1999. Remembering vs. Knowing: Issues in Buyers' Processing of Price Information. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 27(Spring): 201-225.
Sherman, Jeffrey W., Angela Y. Lee, Gayle R Bessenoff and Leigh A. Frost. 1998. Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered: Encoding Flexibility under Cognitive Load. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 75(3): 589-606.
Lee, Angela Y.. 1994. The Mere Exposure Effect: Is It A Mere Case of Misattribution?. Advances in Consumer Research. 21: 270-275.
Book Chapters
Lee, Angela Y. and Alice M. Tybout. Forthcoming. "Laboratory Experimentation in Marketing." In Handbook of Marketing Analytics, with Applications in Marketing, Policy, and Litigation Support, edited by Dominique M. Hanssens and Natalie Mizik, Elgar Publishing.
Lee, Angela Y. and Tonya Williams Bradford. 2015. "The Effect of Self-Construal fit on Motivation, Attitudes and Charitable Giving." In Handbook on Culture and Consumer Psychology, edited by Sharon Ng and Angela Y. Lee, Oxford University Press.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2010. "Goal Driven Market Research: The Answer to a Shrinking Budget." In Kellogg on Marketing, 2nd Ed, edited by Alice M. Tybout and Bobby Calder, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Shavitt, Sharon, Angela Y. Lee and Carlos J. Torelli. 2009. "Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Behavior." In Frontiers of Social Psychology: Social Psychology of Consumer Behavior, edited by Michaela Wanke, 228-250. New York: Psychology Press.
Lee, Angela Y. and Gun R. Semin. 2009. "Culture through the Lens of Self-Regulatory Orientations." In Understanding Culture: Theory, Research and Application, edited by Robert Wyer, Ying-Yi Hong and CY Chiu, New York: Psychology Press.
Lee, Angela Y. and E. T. Higgins. 2009. "The Persuasive Power of Regulartory Fit." In Frontiers of Social Psychology: Social Psychology of Consumer Behavior, edited by Michaela Wanke, 319-333. New York: Psychology Press.
Lee, Angela Y., Sharon Shavitt and Timothy Johnson. 2008. "Cross-Cultural Consumer Psychology." In Handbook of Consumer Psychology, edited by C. Haugtvedt, P. Herr, and F. Kardes, 1103-1132. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Molden, Daniel, Angela Y. Lee and E.Tory Higgins. 2008. "Motivations for Promotion and Prevention." In Handbook of Motivational Science, edited by James Shah, Wendi Gardner, 169-187. New York: Guildford Publications.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2008. "Rethinking Message Strategies: The Difference between Thin and Thick Slicing." In Kellogg on Advertising and Media, edited by Bob Calder, 139-158. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Sternthal, Brian and Angela Y. Lee. 2005. "Building Brands through Effective Advertising." In Kellogg on Branding, edited by Alice M Tybout and Tim Calkins, 129-149. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2004. "China Coping with SARS." In Kellogg on China: Strategies for Success, edited by Anuradha Dayal-Gulati and Angela Y. Lee, 227-236. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Lee, Angela Y. and Brian Sternthal. 1998. "Putting Copy-Testers to the Test." In Financial Times Mastering Marketing, London, UK: Financial Times.
Lee, Angela Y. and Dilip Soman. 2008. Advances in Consumer Research. Duluth, MN: Association of Consumer Research.
Lee, Angela Y. and Anuradha Dayal-Gulati. 2004. Kellogg on China: Strategies for Success. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Ng, Sharon and Angela Y. Lee. 2015. Handbook on Culture and Consumer Psychology. Oxford University Press.
Lee, Angela Y. and Vasilia Kilibarda Funston. 2017. Aliada: An Online Platform Matching Maids with Customers in Mexico. Case 5-217-250 (KE1034).
Lee, Angela Y.Greg Merkley and Bob Bailey. 2015. Wrigley’s Eclipse Gum: Managing Brand Adolescence. Case 5-414-752 (KEL885).

Print Teaching
Teaching Interests

Marketing research, customer insights, consumer behavior

Full-Time / Evening & Weekend MBA
Field Study (MKTG-498-0)
Field Studies include those opportunities outside of the regular curriculum in which a student is working with an outside company or non-profit organization to address a real-world business challenge for course credit under the oversight of a faculty member.

Behavioral Marketing Science (MKTG-959-0)
Consumers are time-starved, strategic and goal-directed. Understanding what their needs are and how they go about satisfying their needs is the key to developing winning marketing strategies. This class introduces students to behavioral research in marketing and psychology that will help them map out the customer experience journey. We will go over psychological frameworks and concepts in behavioral economics, starting with fundamental motivational drivers that ensure survival but also shape consumption goals, to factors that influence cognition and emotions during the information search and in turn impact product evaluations and purchase decisions. The goal is to understand how consumers make judgment and choice, recognizing that choices do not necessarily reflect preferences, and come up with ideas to commercialize these behavioral science insights.

Marketing Research and Analytics (MKTGM-450-0)

Special Topics In Consumer Behavior Research (MKTG-540-0)
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to important methods, issues, or topics that are unaddressed in other marketing doctoral courses, and the focus changes each year. For the 2017 – 2018 academic year, this course will introduce students to a range of topics that have been the focus of attention and interest among consumer researchers in recent years: social influence and relationship deficits, lifespan development, meaning in consumption, marketplace morality, and changing consumer behavior in response to macro trends such as technology and economic factors. While this course will focus on the relevance of these topics for consumer researchers, the course material and discussions may also be pertinent to graduate students in psychology, communication studies and education.

Research Philosophies in Marketing and Consumer Behavior (MKTG-542-0)
This course will enhance students’ ability to understand the philosophical assumptions underlying research methods in marketing and consumer behavior. The first half of the course focuses on consumer behavior from a methodological perspective with the focus being on the broader, more fundamental issues of what should be the goal of consumer research, and what good theory looks like, and how research can be applied. The second half of the course focuses on a particular research tradition in marketing and consumer behavior that will not only to introduce students to an important research tradition in marketing, but also to do so using the analytic frameworks offered during the first half of the course.

Executive MBA
Marketing Research (MKTGX-450-0)
The goal of this course is to introduce you to the essentials of marketing research. The course is aimed at the manager who is the ultimate user of the research and the person responsible for determining the scope and direction of research activities. This course focuses on helping managers recognize the role of systematic information gathering and analysis in making marketing decisions. The emphasis of the course, therefore, is on the interpretation and application of research results in making real-life marketing decisions, with less focus on the mathematical and statistical properties of the techniques used to produce these results.

Executive Education
Customer Insight Tools

Harness the power of customer insight to drive winning strategies and hard-wire the voice of the customer throughout your organization. This interactive program will equip you with the right blend of qualitative and quantitative tools to gain and sustain competitive advantage.

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