Angela Lee
Angela Y. Lee

Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professor of Marketing

Print Overview

Angela Y. Lee joined the marketing faculty at the Kellogg School in 1995 and was named Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professor of Marketing in 2007.

Professor Lee is a consumer psychologist. Her expertise is in consumer learning, emotions and goals. Her research focuses on consumer motivation and affect, cross-cultural consumer psychology, and nonconscious influences of memory on judgment and choice. Her publications appear in both marketing and psychology journals and she is the co-editor of Kellogg on China (Northwestern University Press, 2004). She was the recipient of the 2006 Stanley Reiter Best Paper Award for her research on self-regulation and persuasion, and the 2002 Otto Klineberg Award for the best paper on international and intercultural relations. She currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Consumer Research (Associate Editor), Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Psychology, and the International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising.

At the Kellogg School, she teaches Marketing Research in the MBA program, and has served as the faculty advisor of the Global Initiatives in Management class for China, Japan and South Africa. She also teaches a doctoral seminar in Consumer Behavior.

Professor Lee is a native of Hong Kong where she worked as a fund raising consultant for nonprofit organizations before entering academia. She received her BBA in Marketing and Travel Industry Management from the University of Hawaii, an MPhil in Economics from the University of Hong Kong, and a PhD in Marketing from the University of Toronto.

Areas of Expertise
Consumer Behavior
Consumer Decision-Making
International Marketing
Marketing Management
Marketing Research
Nonprofit Marketing

Print Vita
Ph.D., 1995, Marketing, University of Toronto
M.Phil., 1990, Economics, University of Hong Kong
B.B.A., 1981, Marketing & Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii

Academic Positions
Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, 2007-present
Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Managament, Northwestern University, 2006-present
Visiting Professor, Marketing,  , Hongkong University of Science and Technology, 2008-2008
PepsiCo Professor of International Marketing , 2006-2007
Associate Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, 2001-2006
Visiting Associate Professor of Marketing, Cornell University, 2000-2001
Assistant Professor, Marketing, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, 1995-2001

Grants and Awards
University of Hawaii Hall of Honor, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Mechthild Esser Nemmers Professorship, 2007
Invited Speaker, Society of Personality & Social Psychology Attitude Pre-Conference , 2006
PepsiCo Research Chair in International Marketing, 2006
Stanley Reiter Best Paper Award, Kellogg School of Management, 2006
Consortium Faculty, AMA Sheth Foundation Doctoral Consortium , 2003, 2004, 2005
Invited Speaker, Midwestern Psychological Association Meeting , 2001, 2005
MSI Young Scholar, 2001
Winner of the Otto Klineberg Award , 2000
Kraft Research Chair, 1997
McManus Research Chair, 1996, 1998
AMA Doctoral Consortium Fellow, 1994

Editorial Positions
Editorial Board Member, Journal of Consumer Psychology-2013
Editorial Board Member, Journal of Consumer Research
Editorial Board Member, Journal of Marketing Research
Ad-hoc Reviewer, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ad-hoc Reviewer, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Ad-hoc Reviewer, Marketing Science Institute
Ad-hoc Reviewer, American Marketing Association

Print Research
Research Interests
Conscious and nonconscious influences of memory on judgment and choice Goal, motivation and self regulation Cross-cultural psychology Affect, emotion and metacognition

Lisjak, Monika and Angela Y. Lee. 2014. The Bright Side of Depletion: Self Protective Impulse Takes Over when Danger Looms. Journal of Consumer Research. 41(1): 55-70.
Spassova, Gerri and Angela Y. Lee. 2014. Looking into the Future: A Fit between Self-Construal and Temporal Distance. Journal of Consumer Research. 40(1): 159-171.
Ding, Ying, Angela Y. Lee and Jing Xu. 2014. Interdependent vs. Independent? The Age and Region Differences of Chinese Consumers’ Self-Construal and their Impacts on Advertising Appeals. Journal of Marketing Science. 9(1): 50-61.
Zhang, Hongxia, Ying Ding, Angela Y. Lee and Jing Xu. 2013. Interdependence vs Independent? The Age and Region Differences of Chinese Consumers' Self-Construal and their Impacts on Advertising Appeals. Journal of Marketing Science. 9(1): 50-61.
Sun, Jin, TakKeh Hean and Angela Y. Lee. 2012. The Effect of of Attribute Alignability on Service Evaluation: The Moderating Role of Uncertainty. Journal of Consumer Research. 38(4): 831-847.
Nam, Myungwoo, Jing Wang and Angela Y. Lee. 2012. The Difference Between Differences: How Expertise Affects Diagnosticity of Attribute Alignability. Journal of Consumer Research. 38(4): 736-750.
Lisjak, Monika, Angela Y. Lee and Wendi Gardner. 2012. When a Threat to the Brand Is a Threat to the Self: The Importance of Brand Identification and Implicit Self-Esteem in Predicting Defensiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 38: 1120-1132.
Lisjak, Monika, Daniel Molden and Angela Y. Lee. 2012. Primed Interference: The Cognitive and Behavioral Costs of an Incongruity between Chronic and Primed Motivational Orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Reimann, Martin, Feye Wilko, Alan J. Malter, Josh Ackerman, Raquel Castano, Nitika Garg, Robert Kreuzbauer, Aparna LabrooAngela Y. Lee, Maureen Morrin, Gergana Y. Nenkov, Jesper H. Nielsen, Maria Perez, Gratiana Pol, JoseAntonio Rosa, Carolyn Yoon and Chen-Bo Zhong. 2012. Embodiment in Judgement and Choice. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics. 5(2)
Lee, Sujin, Angela Y. Lee and Mary Kern. 2011. Viewing Time Through the Lens of the Self: The Fit Effect of Self-Construal and Temporal Distance on Task Perception. European Journal of Social Psychology. 41: 191-200.
Hong, Jiewen and Angela Y. Lee. 2010. Feeling Mixed but Not Torn: The Moderating Role of Construal Level in Mixed Emotions Appeals. Journal of Consumer Research. 37(3): 456-472.
Lee, Angela Y., Punam A. Keller and Brian Sternthal. 2010. Value From Regulatory Construal Fit: The Persuasive Impact of Fit Between Consumer Goals and Message Concreteness. Journal of Consumer Research. 36(5): 735-747.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2009. Engaging the Consumer: The Opposing Forces of Regulatory Nonfit versus Fit. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 19: 134-136.
Kim, Hakkyun, Akshay Rao and Angela Y. Lee. 2009. It's Time to Vote: Fit Between Construal Level and Temporal Distance on Political Persuation. Journal of Consumer Research. 35(6): 877-889.
Hong, Jiewen and Angela Y. Lee. 2008. Be Fit and Be Strong: Mastering Self-Regulation with Regulatory Fit. Journal of Consumer Research. 34(5): 682-695.
Labroo, Aparna and Angela Y. Lee. 2006. Between Two Brands: A Goal Fluency Account of Brand Evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research. 43(3): 374-385.
Aaker, Jennifer L and Angela Y. Lee. 2006. Understanding Regulatory Fit. Journal of Marketing Research. 43(1): 15-19.
Wang, Jing and Angela Y. Lee. 2006. The Role of Regulatory Focus in Preference Construction. Journal of Marketing Research. 43(1): 28-38.
Osselaer, StijinM.J.Van, Suresh Ramanathan, Margaret C Campbell, Joel B Cohen, Jeannette K Dale, Paul M. Herr, Chris Janiszewski, A. Kruglanski, Angela Y. Lee, Stephen J. Read, J.Edward Russo and Nader T. Tavassoli. 2005. Choice Based on Goals. Marketing Letters. 16(4): 335-346.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2004. The Prevalence of Meta-Cognitive Routes to Judgment. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 14(4): 345-355.
Lee, Angela Y. and Aparna Labroo. 2004. Effects of Conceptual and Perceptual Fluency on Affective Judgment. Journal of Marketing Research. 41(2): 151-165.
Lee, Angela Y. and Jennifer L Aaker. 2004. Bringing the Frame into Focus: The Influence of Regulatory Fit on Processing Fluency and Persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86(2): 205-218.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2002. Effects of Implicit Memory on Memory-Based versus Stimulus-Based Brand Choice. Journal of Marketing Research. 39(4): 440-454.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2001. The Mere Exposure Effect: An Uncertainty Reduction Explanation Revisited. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 27(10): 1255-1266.
Aaker, Jennifer L and Angela Y. Lee. 2001. I Seek Pleasures and We Avoid Pains: The Role of Self Regulatory Goals in Information Processing and Persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research. 28(1): 33-49.
Lee, Angela Y., Jennifer L Aaker and Wendi Gardner. 2000. The Pleasures and Pains of Distinct Self-Construals: The Role of Interdependence in Regulatory Focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78(6): 1122-1134.
Gardner, Wendi, Shira Gabriel and Angela Y. Lee. 1999. 'I' Value Freedom, but 'We' Value Relationships: Self-construal Priming Mirrors Cultural Differences in Judgment. Psychological Science. 10(4): 321-326.
Lee, Angela Y. and Brian Sternthal. 1999. Effects of Positive Mood on Memory. Journal of Consumer Research. 26(September): 115-127.
Monroe, Kent and Angela Y. Lee. 1999. Remembering vs. Knowing: Issues in Buyers' Processing of Price Information. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 27(Spring): 201-225.
Sherman, Jeffrey W., Angela Y. Lee, Gayle R Bessenoff and Leigh A. Frost. 1998. Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered: Encoding Flexibility under Cognitive Load. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 75(3): 589-606.
Lee, Angela Y.. 1994. The Mere Exposure Effect: Is It A Mere Case of Misattribution?. Advances in Consumer Research. 21: 270-275.
Working Papers
Levontin, Liat, Danit Ein-Gar and Angela Y. Lee. Emptying Increases Resource Replenishment but Reduces Resource Expending: A Resource Deficiency Perspective.
Harding, Lora, Monika Lisjak and Angela Y. Lee. 2011. The Persuasive Power of Regulatory Nonfit.
Hong, Jiewen and Angela Y. Lee. 2011. The Effect of Mixed Emotions on Variety Seeking.
Koo, Minjung, Aparna Labroo and Angela Y. Lee. 2011. The Role of Goal Vigilance in Self-Control: The Winning Strategy of Prevention Orientation.
Book Chapters
Lee, Angela Y. and Tonya Williams Bradford. Forthcoming. "The Effect of Self-Construal fit on Motivation, Attitudes and Charitable Giving." In Handbook on Culture and Consumer Psychology, edited by Sharon Ng and Angela Y. Lee, Oxford University Press.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2010. "Goal Driven Market Research: The Answer to a Shrinking Budget." In Kellogg on Marketing, 2nd Ed, edited by Alice M. Tybout and Bobby Calder, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Shavitt, Sharon, Angela Y. Lee and Carlos J. Torelli. 2009. "Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Behavior." In Frontiers of Social Psychology: Social Psychology of Consumer Behavior, edited by Michaela Wanke, 228-250. New York: Psychology Press.
Lee, Angela Y. and Gun R. Semin. 2009. "Culture through the Lens of Self-Regulatory Orientations." In Understanding Culture: Theory, Research and Application, edited by Robert Wyer, Ying-Yi Hong and CY Chiu, New York: Psychology Press.
Lee, Angela Y. and E. T. Higgins. 2009. "The Persuasive Power of Regulartory Fit." In Frontiers of Social Psychology: Social Psychology of Consumer Behavior, edited by Michaela Wanke, 319-333. New York: Psychology Press.
Lee, Angela Y., Sharon Shavitt and Timothy Johnson. 2008. "Cross-Cultural Consumer Psychology." In Handbook of Consumer Psychology, edited by C. Haugtvedt, P. Herr, and F. Kardes, 1103-1132. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Molden, Daniel, Angela Y. Lee and E.Tory Higgins. 2008. "Motivations for Promotion and Prevention." In Handbook of Motivational Science, edited by James Shah, Wendi Gardner, 169-187. New York: Guildford Publications.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2008. "Rethinking Message Strategies: The Difference between Thin and Thick Slicing." In Kellogg on Advertising and Media, edited by Bob Calder, 139-158. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Sternthal, Brian and Angela Y. Lee. 2005. "Building Brands through Effective Advertising." In Kellogg on Branding, edited by Alice M Tybout and Tim Calkins, 129-149. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Lee, Angela Y.. 2004. "China Coping with SARS." In Kellogg on China: Strategies for Success, edited by Anuradha Dayal-Gulati and Angela Y. Lee, 227-236. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Lee, Angela Y. and Brian Sternthal. 1998. "Putting Copy-Testers to the Test." In Financial Times Mastering Marketing, London, UK: Financial Times.
Lee, Angela Y. and Dilip Soman. 2008. Advances in Consumer Research. Duluth, MN: Association of Consumer Research.
Lee, Angela Y. and Anuradha Dayal-Gulati. 2004. Kellogg on China: Strategies for Success. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Ng, Sharon and Angela Y. Lee. 2000. Handbook on Culture and Consumer Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Print Teaching
Teaching Interests
Marketing research, customer insights, consumer behavior, global initiatives in management
Full-Time / Part-Time MBA
Global Initiatives in Management (GIM) (INTL-473-0)

This course counts toward the following majors: International Business

This course offers students an opportunity to learn about non-U.S. business environments within an innovative and flexible framework that combines traditional classroom-based learning with structured in-country field research. From its inception in 1989 as one class of 34 students covering the Soviet Union, the program has grown to become a cornerstone of the Kellogg experience for many students. The school currently sponsors 13 GIM courses composed of approximately 400 students traveling to 15 countries. Evanston full-time students gain admission to GIM classes through the bidding process in the fall quarter. Classroom instruction is held during the winter quarter, followed by two weeks of field research abroad and seminar presentations of written student reports during the spring quarter. (TMP and EMP GIM classes sometimes follow different schedules.) GIM courses are organized by student leaders under the guidance of a faculty adviser. If you would like to become a GIM student leader, please contact the IBMP office for more information.

Marketing Research (MKTG-450-0)

This course counts toward the following majors: Managerial Analytics, Marketing, Marketing Management

The broad objective of this course is to provide a fundamental understanding of marketing research methods employed by well-managed firms. The course focuses on integrating problem formulation, research design, questionnaire construction, sampling, data collection and data analysis to yield the most valuable information. The course also examines the proper use of statistical applications as well as qualitative methods, with an emphasis on the interpretation and use of results.

Research Philosophies in Marketing and Consumer Behavior (formerly MKTG-520-3) (MKTG-542-0)
This course will enhance students’ ability to understand the philosophical assumptions underlying research methods in marketing and consumer behavior. The first half of the course focuses on consumer behavior from a methodological perspective with the focus being on the broader, more fundamental issues of what should be the goal of consumer research, and what good theory looks like, and how research can be applied. The second half of the course focuses on a particular research tradition in marketing and consumer behavior that will not only to introduce students to an important research tradition in marketing, but also to do so using the analytic frameworks offered during the first half of the course.

Executive MBA
Marketing Research (MKTGX-450-0)
The goal of this course is to introduce you to the essentials of marketing research. The course is aimed at the manager who is the ultimate user of the research and the person responsible for determining the scope and direction of research activities. This course focuses on helping managers recognize the role of systematic information gathering and analysis in making marketing decisions. The emphasis of the course, therefore, is on the interpretation and application of research results in making real-life marketing decisions, with less focus on the mathematical and statistical properties of the techniques used to produce these results.

Executive Education
Customer Insight Tools: Turning Insight into Effective Marketing Strategies
Learn practical tools for uncovering and leveraging customer insights to create powerful marketing strategies. Infused with the right blend of qualitative and quantitative tools, this interactive program will prepare you to use customer insights to build strong marketing plans and gain a sustainable competitive advantage.
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